The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, dominated by Sparta. Corinth suffered badly in the First Peloponnesian War, for which it was responsible after attacking Megara. The initial success of establishing a garrison at Thebes between 379 and 376 BCE only resulted in antagonising the Thebans. Copy this URL: Embed code: Change dimensions . However, Sparta over-reached itself in trying to crush long-time rival Thebes. Common features, though, of this loose association were the requirement of members to swear to hold common 'friends and enemies', promise reciprocal assistance, and follow the military ambition of their leader (hegemon), Sparta. In reality, the league also granted increased power and prestige to Athens. Besides having the largest and most formidable army, Sparta's domination of the Peloponnesian League was ensured by the fact that the League's military force was always led by a Spartan - either one of the two Spartan kings or a senior Spartan commander. Go HD. The major players in the Peloponnesian League that we are aware of consisted of Sparta, Corinth, Kythira, Melos, Pylos, Mantinea, Ellis, Epidaurus, Boeotia, Lefkada and Ambracia. The city of Corinth was a rich, important, cosmopolitan, commercial area, having one harbor that allowed trade with Asia, and another that led to Italy. The war commenced on 4 April 431 B.C. The … This caused Corinth to ask the Peloponnesian League to declare war against the Delian League, and of course the already threatened Spartans agreed, thus causing the Great Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. By 510 BCE the League encompassed all of the Peloponnese and, under the leadership of Cleomenes I, even spread further to include such cities as Megara and parts of Attica. The League began in c. 550 BCE, according to Plutarch, so that Sparta might protect itself against both a possible uprising of Sparta's helots (semi-free agricultural labourers) and regional rival Argos, in the north of the Peloponnese. The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. When these two powers quarrelled after the peace of Nicias, it remained loyal to the Spartans. Sparta decided to go to war with Athens. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. This assembly was led by an ephor and decisions about such matters as military campaigns and new memberships were taken by majority. The Corinthians accused Sparta of not having the gumption to challenge the growing Athenian empire, goading them on to fight. In c. 494 BCE Argos was defeated (but never became a member) and, according to Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War, 2.9), over the next 50 years or so the League’s membership spread further to include cities in Phocis and Boeotia. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) was fought between Athens and its empire, known as the Delian League, and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. Peloponnesian League, an alliance of city-states. The Peloponnesian League met in 432 BC. Despite the collaborative nature of the victory, Sparta alone received the plunder taken from the defeated states and the tribute payments from the former Athenian … Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Event though Corinth did remind Athens that they kept the Peloponnesian League out of the Samian War, Athens still accepted Corcyra into the League. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. when Athens surrendered. Following victory in the Peloponnesian War against Athens in 404 BCE and the consequent addition of new Aegean allies, Sparta held an even tighter grip on member states and the harmosts were left in place. Unlike in the Delian League where Athens compelled members to pay a tribute under any circumstances, the members of the Peloponnesian League had only to contribute militarily when required. Corinth was threatening "to join a different alliance". when the Thebans launched a surprise attack on Plataea, who as a partner of Athens. Sparta’s policy of interfering in the government of League members continued with their heavy-handed treatment of both Mantinea in 385 BCE, dividing up its villages, and with war against Phleious 381-379 BCE. The major members in the Peloponnesian League were Sparta, Corinth, Kythira, Melos, Pylos, Mantinea, Elis, Epidaurus, Boeotia, Lefkada and Ambracia. xii 40.6; Aristophanes Peace 603-11) Megarian Decree. External links. It was a conservative alliance which supported oligarchies and opposed tyrannies and democracies. From Solon to Socrates: Greek History and Civilization During the 6th... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Nevertheless, the mythical founder of the city was believed to have been King Sisyphus, famed for his punishment in Hades where he was made to forever roll a large boulder up a hill. When Athens decided to invade Thasos, Sparta would have come to the aid of the north Aegean island, had Sparta not suffered a natural disaster. While Athens would ultimately claim victory in this battle, their aggression was enough to prompt Sparta and the Peloponnesian League to formally declare war on Athens. For example many people believe that Macedonia was part of the Peloponnesian League, while others refute this claim with Macedonia not being clearly on any on… The common name used in contemporary documents was "The Lacedemonians and their allies", emphasizing the leadership of Sparta. The Peloponnesian … under Spartan control, for prominent League members like Corinth or Thebes were not under her control. 17 Jan 2021. The Athenians backed the Corcyrians and sent a force of triremes to prevent the Corinthians from re-imposing their rule. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the … Some Athenian territory had been abandoned after the First Syracusan War. Besides having the largest and most formidable army, Sparta's domination of the Peloponnesian League was ensured by the fact that the League's military force was always led by a Spartan - either one of the two Spartan kings or a senior Spartan commander. This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer, Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the, A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the, Spartan soldiers return from campaigning Thrace, some as, Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near, The Politics of Ethnicity and the Crisis of the Peloponnesian League. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Pericles devised a strategy based upon the naval power of Athens and the Delian League allies. The major players in the Peloponnesian League that we are aware of consisted of Sparta, Corinth, Kythira, Melos, Pylos, Mantinea, Ellis, Epidaurus, Boeotia, Lefkada and Ambracia. It would not be exaggerated to say that all Greek nations had now more or less become members of … of city-states. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War , against the Delian League, which was dominated by Athens. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. This should change our view of the Peloponnesian League: it was not a body that we should even expect to be under Spartan control, for prominent League members like Corinth or Thebes were not under her control. Corcyra appealed to Athens for help, offering to Athens the use of its navy. Nor was it really "Peloponnesian." The first member was Tegea which, after resisting Spartan attack, was compelled to form an alliance. Only in the case of a religious obligation (e.g. The League was the oldest and longest-lasting political association in the ancient Greek world. The "Peloponnesian League" was not really a "league" at all. Pericles issued the decree to incite war (Diod. For example many people … The Peloponnesian War ( 431 - 404 B.C ) The War fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. Sparta also directly interfered in the domestic affairs of member states, often promoting rule by an oligarchy favourable to Spartan policy. The result of the conflict was the 'King’s Peace' where Sparta ceded its empire to Persian control but Sparta was left to dominate Greece. In 369 BCE, it was captured and garrisoned by the The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) was fought between Athens and its empire, known as the Delian League, and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. Furthermore, most of its members were not from the Peloponnese, but rather were located outside the Peloponnese Peninsula. During this conflict, Greek warfare evolved from an originally limited and formalized form of conflict, to all-out struggles between city-states, complete with large-scale atrocities. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over… Not being a major Mycenaean centre, Corinth lacks the mythological heritage of other Greek city-states. Perhaps worst of all, the nearby silver mines were totally disrupted, with as many as 20,000 Athenian sla… This pitted the League against Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Persia from 396 to 387 BCE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Delian League was successful in removing the remaining Persians from Greece and the Aegean Sea. Last modified March 09, 2016. Belligerents Sparta Peloponnesian League Athens Argos Corinth Thebes Persian Empire Other alliesCommanders and leaders Agesilaus and others Numerous The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states; Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos; which were initially backed by Persia. Map of the Peloponnesian War, Beginningby U.S. Military Academy (Public Domain). The Delian League and the Peloponnesian League prior to the Corinthian War. Athens decided to grant Corcyra an alliance, but only i… Sisyphus was succeeded by his son Glaucus and his grandson Bellerophon, whose winged-horse Pegasus became a symbol of the city and … Therefore, historians have always had difficulty in defining wars and dating their beginnings. Then, coming up against a rampant Thebes and their brilliant general Epaminondas, Sparta was defeated at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE. However, Corinth, one of the few city-states in the Peloponnesian League that could stand up to Sparta’s power, was adamantly opposed to this move, and so the notion of war was tabled for some time. Sparta suffered an embarrassing loss to Tegea in a frontier war and eventually offered them a permanent defensive alliance; this was the turning point for Spartan foreign policy. Following victory in the Peloponnesian War against Athens in 404 BCE and the consequent addition of new Aegean allies, S… … The league provided protection and security to its members. Sparta lost the Battle of Tegyra in 375 BCE to Thebes, now a rising power and about to enter its most glorious phase in history. Some leading Spartans became concerned that their inaction would push the other major Greek powers to side with Athens. The Peloponnesian League met in 432 BC. The league was organized with Spartaas the hegemon, and was controlled by the council of allies which was composed of two bodies: the assembly of Spartiates and the Congress of Allies. Corcyra (Corfu) was an unwilling colony of Corinth and not part of either the Athenian or the Peloponnesian League. Megarians may not use Athenian harbours or markets. Unlike other confederacies such as the contemporary Delian League, the Peloponnesian League had no single binding agreement but was, rather, a collection of city-states (poleis) each having negotiated their own terms with dominant Sparta. Related Content On the advice of Alcibiades, they fortified Decelea, near Athens, and prevented the Athenians from making use of their land year round. A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. The ancient Greek historian Thucydides called it "a war like no other"—arguably the greatest in the history of the world up to that time. However, other poleis could hold influence comparable to Sparta herself, especially Corinth, due to its wealth and navy.[1]. Corinth, who had originally saved Athens in the First Syracusan War, were decisively defeated after an Athenian invasion of the peninsula and the occupation of Corinth itself. No tribute was paid except in times of war (mainly against the Delian league), when one third of the military of a state could be requested. Sparta acquired two powerful allies, Corinth and Elis, by ridding Corinth of tyranny, and … Corcyra operated a fleet of 120 galleys. The Lacedaemonians were not content with simply sending aid to Sicily; they also resolved to take the war to the Athenians. 1 The term "Peloponnesian League," unattested in the sources (which refer to "the Lacedaemonians and their allies" or "the Peloponnesians") is a mod­ ern convenience to describe the cities more or less subject to Sparta and bound by unequal treaties to "have the same friends and enemies as the Spartans, and to follow the Spartans wheresoever they may lead" (e.g. The war was documented by Thucydides, an Athenian general and historian, in his work History of the Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. It is known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), against the Delian League, which was dominated by Athens. meeting of the Peloponnesian League in 432 BCE. Corinth appealed to the Peloponnesian League for support and in 432 BC Sparta declared war on Athens. Sparta acquired two powerful allies, Corinth and Elis (also city-states), by ridding Corinth of tyranny, and helping Elis secure control of the Olympic Games. Staatsrecht I 92) thought that Corinth and her allies were fighting alone until … The actions of Corinth and Boeotia in the Peloponnesian League can teach us about how nullification should work. If Corinth left the Peloponnesian League, Athenian power relative to the Peloponnesian League (Pericles's primary adversary) would grow diplomatically, not merely through the alliance with Corcyra but also by dividing Sparta from Corinth, its chief and wealthiest ally and the only one with a significant navy, and, not least important, by reducing its access to northern Greece. The Corinthians threatened to leave the Peloponnesian League unless the leaders of the League, the Spartans, were willing to go to war against Athens. https://www.ancient.eu/Peloponnesian_League/. The members of this league were ostensibly equal, but Sparta held all of the power, as the league was founded on the strength of Sparta’s hoplite military. The common name used in contemporary documents was "The Lacedemonians and their allies", emphasizing the leadership of Sparta. Withdrawing within the walls of their city, the Athenians would survive sustained by supplies brought in by sea, while using their fleet to raid … … The league was organized with Sparta as the hegemon, and was controlled by the council of allies which was composed of two bodies: the assembly of Spartiates and the Congress of Allies. In 338 BC, the Peloponnesian League was disbanded when Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, formed the League of Corinth after defeating Thebes and Athens, incorporating all the Peloponnesian states except Sparta. While this is what we believe to be the correct membership, due to the time and date of the Peloponnesian League formation it’s impossible to be one hundred percent certain. Corinth and other members of the Peloponnesian League were unhappy about Sparta’s lack of leadership. For Sparta, the League gave it protection from uprisings within its own borders and eventually secured its dominance in the region and later, following victory in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE, the whole of Greece. Naxos … [28] Sparta's only "alternative" was to sink into oblivion. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Peloponnesian_League/. This solid base of support, however, was fragmented in the years following the war. Members sent delegates to meetings where each city held one vote. Thus, the Peloponnesian League was not an "alliance" in the strictest sense of the word (nor was it wholly Peloponnesian for the entirety of its existence). I 305) thought that Corinth put great pressure on Sparta, as in 43 1, and succeeded in getting her to declare war. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state. In this sense, the League was no league at all as when not engaged in collective warfare city-states were even free to wage war against each other. "Peloponnesian League." fused with Spartan treatment of the Peloponnesian League as a whole. Corinth, a city-state in that league, complained that Sparta was not doing enough to control Athens. The Persian Empire: A Captivating Guide to the History of Persia, Starting... Sparta At War: Strategy, Tactics and Campaigns, 950–362 BC. Wars among the members were possible as well, with Thucydides mentioning a battle between Mantineans and Tegeans (and their respective allies) during the Peloponnesian war. From the 6th … His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Interestingly, Sparta itself did not vote as their position had already been voted upon by the Spartan assembly. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. ), Corinth had joined Argos, Boeotia, and Athens against Sparta. Each allied state had one vote in the Congress, regardless of that state's size or geopolitical power. Sparta decided to go to war with Athens. The Peloponnesian league was a coalition of the Thebes, Corinth and Sparta. The league was led by Sparta, the Peloponnese city-state with the most political and military clout. build up navy) • Peloponnesian League: Sparta and allies • War/Peace o Thirty Years’ Peace: 446, 445 BCE; divides Greek world o Athens defends Corcyra against Corinth -> Corinth-Athens conflict o Potidaeans revolt against Athens with secret deal with Sparta to invade/violate peace o Megara allies with Corinth -> Athens embargo against Megara full war Gill, N.S. Sparta Insults Athens. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. I 305) thought that Corinth put great pressure on Sparta, as in 431, and succeeded in getting her to declare war. Peloponnesian War and Thucydides. Corinth was an ancient Greek city-state situated between the Peloponnese and Attica/Boeotia in mainland Greece. Cartwright, Mark. They were traditionally a neutral city, staying out of Greek politics, but they'd gone to war against Corinth over the fate of Epidamnus. In 470 BCE, the city-state of Naxos asked to be removed from the League, but Athens refused because they need the protection that Naxos could give their ships. Many other states in the central and provincial northern Peloponnese joined the league, which eventually included all Peloponnesian states except Argos and Achaea. Thereafter, the League declined and, with the treaties formed between Corinth, Phleious and Thebes, the Peloponnesian League was, in effect, dissolved by c. 366 BCE. Peloponnesian League study guide by Matthew-W-Atkins includes 24 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Sparta did not join the Delian League, but remained in the Peloponnesian League. Thus, the Peloponnesian League was not an "alliance" in the strictest sense of the word (nor was it wholly Peloponnesian for the entirety of its existence). The Peloponnesian League (c. 550 BCE - c. 366 BCE) was a loose confederation of Greek city-states led by Sparta. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The fortification of Decelea prevented the shipment of supplies overland to Athens, and forced all supplies to be brought in by sea at increased expense. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Megara a member of the Peloponnesian League since 445 BC Megarian Decree (before 435?) The war was divided into 3 phases: The Archidamian War, The Sicilian war and The Ionian or Decelean War: phase. License. Once again though, the Corinthians, mainly as Sparta’s naval ally, had a … The Athenian alliance was, in fact, an empire that included most of the island and coastal states around the northern and eastern shores of the Aegean Sea.Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major … Sparta saw the alliance Athens had formed with Corcyra as an act of aggression against Sparta and her allies, the Peloponnesian league. A debate ensued with the Athenians (who were present…though not invited). All alliances were made with Sparta only… Reasons Athens lost the War. The Greeks themselves referred to the association as 'the Lakedaimonians and their allies'. In 435 BC, Corinth faced a revolt by its colony Corcyra (Corfu). Corinth appealed to the Peloponnesian League for support and in 432 BC Sparta declared … There was no equality at all between the members as might be implied by the term "league." Sparta also directly interfered in the domestic affairs of member states, often promoting rule by an oligarchy favourable to Spartan policy. Xen. Kagan says that this open … Although Corinth did not view Athens as a direct threat, Corinth had both The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. the necessity to observe a particular religious festival) could members refuse participation. 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